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microemulsion

Interesting comment, but you have to remember

(1) Dont forget 1x/DO networks. There is a lot of work already being done for Verizon which is one of the most aggressive for LTE to upgrade to eHRPD.

(2) Redirections are also going to be very important before handovers can happen.

drb

A couple of important points that are ignored when standards are read literally:

a) most of the interfaces discussed are "logical" - differences between them can be compared to "different languages" rather than "different languages spoken in different rooms" - because of this most interfaces are some variation of GTP with some parameters added or removed depending on the end logical function.

b) MME/PDN-GW/SGSN/GGSN even PDSN can all be physically in the same hardware and the vendors are preparing their LTE solutions as such from day one.

c) It is very likely that any network going to LTE will need to replace their GGSNs with GGSNs that are PDN-GW capable solving the oddity. There is little risk in doing so as most of the protocols(interfaces) are IP based and are modified versions of well established protocols - such as GTP.

Also - UMTS to GPRS/EDGE handover is implemented in many networks in "active mode" - i.e. when actively transmitting data - however the opposite case is not implemented as often. Inactive mode is possible either way and is determined by the device.

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